What is Constipation? Constipation refers to bowel movements that are infrequent or hard to pass. Constipation is a common cause of painful defecation. Severe constipation includes obstipation (failure to pass stools or gas) and fecal impaction . Causes: Constipation happens when the colon absorbs too much water, or if the muscles in the colon are contracting slowly or poorly so that the stool moves too slowly and loses more water. Symptoms:
- The inability to have a bowel movement for several days or passing hard, dry stools.
- Abdominal bloating, cramps or pain
- Decreased appetite
What are Corns? A corn or callus (or callosity) is a toughened area of skin which has become relatively thick and hard in response to repeated friction, pressure, or other irritation. Rubbing that is too frequent or forceful will cause blisters rather than allow calluses to form. Since repeated contact is required, calluses are most often found on feet because of frequent walking. Calluses are generally not harmful, but may sometimes lead to other problems, such as skin ulceration or infection. Causes: Calluses and corns are caused over a period of time by repeated pressure or friction on an area of skin. The pressure causes the skin to die and form a hard, protective surface. A soft corn is formed in the same way, except that when perspiration is trapped where the corn develops, the hard core softens. This generally occurs between toes. Calluses and corns are not caused by a virus and are not contagious. Repeated handling of an object that puts pressure on the hand, such as tools (gardening hoe or hammer) or sports equipment (tennis racquet), typically causes calluses on the hands.Calluses and corns on the feet are often caused by pressure from footwear.
- Tight shoes squeeze the foot.
- High-heeled shoes squeeze the front part of the foot.
- Loose shoes may cause your foot to slide and rub against the shoe.
- Shoes with a thin sole can create more pressure on the ball of the foot when walking than do thicker-soled shoes.
- Wearing sandals and shoes without socks can lead to increased friction.
- The foot may rub against a seam or stitch inside the shoe.
- Socks that don’t fit may result in pressure where a sock bunches up.
Walking barefoot also causes calluses. Symptoms:
- A callus is hard, dry, and thick, and it may appear grayish or yellowish. It may be less sensitive to the touch than surrounding skin, and it may feel bumpy. A hard corn is also firm and thick. It may have a soft yellow ring with a gray center. A soft corn looks like an open sore.
- Calluses and corns often are not painful, but they can cause pain when you are walking or wearing shoes. And they may make it hard for your feet to fit in your shoes. Any type of pressure applied to the callus or corn, such as squeezing it, can also cause pain.
What is Crohn’s Disease? Crohn’s disease also known as regional enteritis, is a lifelong inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Parts of the digestive system get swollen and have deep sores called ulcers. Crohn’s disease usually is found in the last part of the small intestine and the first part of the large intestine. But it can develop anywhere in the digestive tract, from the mouth to the anus. Causes: You may get it when the body’s immune system has an abnormal response to normal bacteria in your intestine. Other kinds of bacteria and viruses may also play a role in causing the disease. Symptoms:
- Belly pain and diarrhea (sometimes with blood).
- Some people may have diarrhea 10 to 20 times a day.
- Losing weight without trying is another common sign.
- Mouth sores, bowel blockages, anal tears (fissures), and openings (fistulas) between organs
What is Cystic Fibrosis? Cystic fibrosis is a disease that causes mucus in the body to become thick and sticky. This glue-like mucus builds up and causes problems in many of the body’s organs, especially the lungs and the pancreas . People who have cystic fibrosis can have serious breathing problems and lung disease. They can also have problems with nutrition, digestion, growth, and development. The disease generally gets worse over time. Causes: Cystic fibrosis is caused by a mutation in a gene called the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), which serves an important function in creating sweat, mucus, and digestive juices. Only one copy of this gene is needed to prevent cystic fibrosis, and most people have two copies. However, if a person lacks at least one unaltered version of this gene that can produce a CFTR protein, cystic fibrosis will result. Cystic fibrosis is a hereditary disease in that one can only get it if his or her parents both are carriers. A child must inherit two copies of the defective gene in order to have CF. A child with two parents who are carriers of the defective gene has a 25% chance of having cystic fibrosis and being a carrier of two defective copies of the gene, a 25% chance of not being affected nor a carrier of a defective copy of the gene, and a 50% chance of not being affected by CF but carrying one defective copy of the gene. Symptoms:
- Skin that tastes very salty
- Persistent coughing, often with phlegm or extra mucus
- Frequent lung infections, such as pneumonia and bronchitis
- Shortness of breath
- Little weight gain and poor growth, even with a good appetite
- Frequent greasy, bulky stools or trouble with defecation
- Nasal polyps – small, fleshy growths in the nose
What is Dandruff? Dandruff affects the scalp and causes flakes of skin to appear – it is a common condition. Our skin cells are forever renewing themselves. When the skin cells on our scalp are renewed the old ones are pushed to the surface and out of the scalp. For a person with dandruff the renewal is faster, meaning more dead skin is shed, making the dandruff more noticeable. Dandruff can also occur if the scalp is frequently exposed to extreme temperatures. Causes:
- Not enough hair brushing
- Yeast – People who are sensitive to yeast have a slightly higher risk of having dandruff, so it is logical to assume that yeast may play a part.
- Dry skin – people with dry skin tend to get dandruff more often. Winter cold air, combined with overheated rooms is a common cause of itchy, flaking skin
- Seborrheic dermatitis (irritated, oily skin) – People with seborrheic dermatitis are very prone to dandruff.
- Not enough shampooing –
- Certain skin conditions – People with psoriasis, eczema and some other skin disorders tend to get dandruff much more frequently than other people.
- Some illnesses – Adults with Parkinson’s disease and some other neurological illnesses are more prone to having dandruff and seborrheic dermatitis. Patients recovering from heart attacks and strokes, and some people with weak immune systems may have dandruff more often than other people.
- Reaction to hair/skin care
- Diet – Some experts say that people who do not consume enough foods that contain zinc, B vitamins, and some types of fats are more prone to dandruff.
- Mental stress – Experts believe there is a link between stress and many skin problems.
- HIV – A study found that 10.6% of people with HIV have seborrheic dermatitis.
- There are while flakes of skin on the scalp, and in the person’s hair
- Flakes may be oily looking
- Head may feel tight and itchy
- Head may feel tingly
- Head may feel sore
- Red, flaky, greasy patches of skin (adults, Seborrheic dermatitis of the scalp in adults)
- Crusting and scaling rash on scalp (babies with Seborrheic dermatitis, or cradle cap)
What is Dementia? Dementia is the progressive deterioration in cognitive function – the ability to process thought (intelligence). Causes:
- The causes of dementia include various diseases and infections, strokes, head injuries, drugs, and nutritional deficiencies.
- All dementias reflect dysfunction in the cerebral cortex, or brain tissue. Some disease processes damage the cortex directly; others disrupt subcortical areas that normally regulate the function of the cortex.
- When the underlying process does not permanently damage the cortical tissue, the dementia may sometimes be stopped or reversed.
- In classifying dementias, medical professionals may either separate cortical or subcortical dementias or divide reversible and irreversible dementias.
- Memory loss – the patient may forget his way back home from the shops. He may forget names and places. He may find it hard to remember what happened earlier on during the day.
- Moodiness – the patient may become more and more moody as parts of the brain that control emotion become damaged. Moods may also be affected by fear and anxiety – the patient is frightened about what is happening to him.
- Communicative difficulties – the affected person finds it harder to talk read and/or write.
What is Dengue? Dengue fever is a disease caused by viruses that are transmitted by mosquitoes Causes: Dengue fever is spread through the bite of mosquitoes that carry the virus. The virus cannot spread from person to person through casual contact. People who have dengue fever should be protected from mosquito bites. If a mosquito bites an infected person, the mosquito becomes infected with the virus and can pass it to other people. Symptoms:
- After being bitten by a mosquito carrying the virus, the incubation period ranges from three to 15 (usually five to eight) days before the signs and symptoms of dengue appear in stages.
- Dengue starts with chills, headache, pain upon moving the eyes, and low backache.
- Painful aching in the legs and joints occurs during the first hours of illness.
- The temperature rises quickly as high as 104 F (40 C), with relatively low heart rate (bradycardia) and low blood pressure(hypotension).
- The eyes become reddened. A flushing or pale pink rash comes over the face and then disappears.
- The glands (lymph nodes) in the neck and groin are often swollen.
What is Depression? Most people have felt sad or depressed at times. Feeling depressed can be a normal reaction to loss, life’s struggles, or an injured self-esteem. But when feelings of intense sadness — including feeling helpless, hopeless, and worthless — last for many days to weeks and keep you from functioning normally, your depression may be something more than sadness. It may very well be clinical depression — a treatable medical condition. Causes: Some types of depression run in families, indicating that a biological vulnerability to depression can be inherited. This seems to be the case, especially with bipolar disorder. Families in which members of each generation develop bipolar disorder have been studied. The investigators found that those with the illness have a somewhat different genetic makeup than those who do not become ill. However, the reverse is not true. That is, not everybody with the genetic makeup that causes vulnerability to bipolar disorder will develop the illness. Apparently, additional factors, possibly a stressful environment, are involved in its onset and protective factors are involved in its prevention. Major depression also seems to occur in generation after generation in some families, although not as strongly as in bipolar I or II. Indeed, major depression can also occur in people who have no family history of depression. Symptoms:
- Difficulty concentrating, remembering details, and making decisions
- Fatigue and decreased energy
- Feelings of guilt, worthlessness, and/or helplessness
- Feelings of hopelessness and/or pessimism
- Insomnia, early morning wakefulness, or excessive sleeping
- Irritability, restlessness
- Loss of interest in activities or hobbies once pleasurable, including sex
- Loss of pleasure in life
- Overeating or appetite loss
- Persistent aches or pains, headaches, cramps, or digestive problems that do not ease even with treatment
- Persistent sad, anxious, or “empty” feelings
What is Deviated Nasal Septum? A deviated septum occurs when the thin wall (nasal septum) between the nostrils is displaced to one side. The septum separates the right and left nasal cavities and ideally is situated in the center of your nose, equally separating the two sides. However, in many people, the nasal septum is displaced, making one nasal passage smaller. When a deviated septum is severe, it can block one side of your nose and reduce airflow, causing difficulty breathing, nosebleeds and other symptoms. Causes: Some people are born with a deviated septum. Other people develop a deviated septum after injury or trauma to the nose. Symptoms:
- whistling noise when breathing
- blood discharge
- difficulty breathing
- nasal pressure and discomfort.
- facial pain
- postnasal drip
- loud breathing and snoring during sleep