Trigeminal neuralgia(TN)

What is Trigeminal neuralgia(TN)?

Trigeminal Neuralgia, also known as Tic Douloureaux.Trigeminal neuralgia one of the largest nerves in the head. It causes facial pain and affects the trigeminal nerve.The condition is the most frequently occurring of all the nerve pain disorders. This pain can last from a few seconds to a few minutes. The trigeminal nerve sends impulses of touch, pain, pressure, and temperature to the brain from the face, jaw, gums, forehead, and around the eyes. Trigeminal neuralgia develops in mid to late life


  • A blood vessel presses against the root of the trigeminal nerve.
  • Multiple sclerosis – due to demyelinization of the nerve. Trigeminal neuralgia typically appears in the advanced stages of multiple sclerosis.
  • A tumor presses against the trigeminal nerve. This is a rare cause.
  • Physical damage to the nerve – this may be the result of injury, a dental or surgical procedure, or infection.
  • Family history (genes, inherited) – 


  • Intermittent twinges of mild pain.
  • Severe episodes of searing, shooting, jabbing pain that feel like electric shocks.
  • Sudden attacks of pain which are triggered by touching the face, chewing, speaking or brushing teeth.
  • Spasms of pain which last from a couple of seconds to a couple of minutes.
  • Episodes of cluster attacks which may go on for days, weeks, months, and in some cases longer. There may be periods without any pain.
  • Pain wherever the trigeminal nerve and its branches may reach, including the forehead, eyes, lips, gums, teeth, jaw and cheek.
  • Pain which affects one side of the face.
  • Pain on both sides of the face (much less common).
  • Pain that is focused in one spot or spreads in a wider pattern.
  • Attacks of pain which occur more regularly and intensely over time.
  • Tingling or numbness in the face before pain develops.